controlled circulation

Refers to those journals distributed free of charge to selected recipients plus those who have requested copies on publishers invitation.

Most cc journals are trade and technical, and they usually have higher penetration of market than purchased journals.

Consequently, publishers have adopted controlled circulation distribution in order to be able to offer advertisers large circulation, justifying high advertisement rate.

However, recent trend has been to reduce the free list and build up a subscription list. Sometimes a new magazine will start as a cc and gradually revert to one with a cover price, bookstall sales and postal subscriptions.

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