1. Product recall. When a fault has been discovered in a product, and it is recalled by appeals to customers who have purchased the faulty product.
  2. Aided recall. As in readership surveys, when informants are shown mastheads (titles) of publications.
  3. Day after recall. When readers/viewers are questioned the next day to measure what is recalled or remembered of advertisements/commercials if they have been seen by those questioned, usually in street interviews.

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